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Solidoro C., Bandelj V., Aubry Bernardi F., Camatti E., Ciavatta S., Cossarini G., Facca C., Franzoi P., Libralato S., Melaku Canu D., Pastres R., Pranovi F., Raicevich S., Socal G., Sfriso A., Sigovini M., Tagliapietra D., Torricelli P. Response of the Venice Lagoon Ecosystem to Natural and Anthropogenic Pressures over the last 50 years. In: M. J. Kennish, H. W. Paerl . Costal lagoons: critical habitats of environmental change. pp. 483-512. 2010.


Analysis of the Venice Lagoon responses to changing morphological features, freshwater discharges,nutrient loads, fishing activities, and other factors shows that this shallow coastal water body is a complex, heterogeneous, and continuously evolving dynamic system, sensitive to an array of external drivers and pressures. Both natural and anthropogenic stressors significantly affect the lagoon system. To successfully assess the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the lagoon, it is important to understand the extent of natural variability and spatial heterogeneity. Investigations of the biotic communities, biogeochemical processes, and bottom habitats demonstrate that external drivers of change can alter the structure and function of the entire ecosystem through direct and cascading effects. Therefore, responsible governance is needed to effectively manage lagoon components, and a successful resource management of the lagoon requires an integrated vision and a participatory adaptive approach.

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