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Schabelon, H.. Fischerei und deren natürliche Grundlagen in der westlichen Odermündungsregion - räumliche und zeitliche Aspekte sowie Bezüge zu weiteren wasserbezogenen Nutzungen. In: Schernewski, G., Glaeser, B., Scheibe, R., Sekścińska, A., Thamm, R. (eds.). Coastal Development: The Oder estuary and beyond. Coastline Reports (8), pp. 41-57. EUCC - The Coastal Union, Leiden, 2007.

Zusammenfassung:

The article points out selected aspects for spatial and temporal activities of fishery in the region of the Oder estuary and the Western Pomeranian Bay. For that purpose examples of data and different information resources are compiled and assessed according to their relevance on the subject. Conclusions are based on a project of the Ministry of Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries M-V as well as on data and expert information from the State Office for Agriculture, Food Security and Fisheries M-V. In the Oder estuary fishery constitutes basic aquatic management. Major fish catching regions are located east of Rügen in the Greifswalder Bodden and in the Pomeranian Bay. Coastal waters off Usedom and the Oder estuary with Peenestrom and Stettiner Haff including their attached waterbodies considerably enrich the range of fishing activities. This is due to the additional commercial fish species consisting of different fresh water species and migratory species like whitefish and sea trout. 34 fishing villages with approximately 231 fishing vessels at the coast of Kleines Haff, Peenestrom and the coast off Usedom (status 2006) show the amount of fishing activities in these coastal waters. So fishery contributes to the enrichment of economic branches in the region. It is an important addition for tourism and a characteristic regional feature. During the last years many projects were started concerning stabilisation and resettlement of chosen fish species like whitefish, sea trout and sturgeon in the region of the Oder estuary. Those activities emphasize the effort of enhancement in commercial and non-commercial fishery in the area. Next to hydrographic factors like salinity and currents (exposition), water character and offering of benthic and planktonic food supplies, habitat characteristics like natural coverage and hard bottoms are favoured as they are important for the life cycles of fishes. In addition, according to the “Regulation of Coastal Fishery of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern”, fishing bans for chosen fish species, minimum sizes, closed seasons, sanctuaries, and other regulations for the region of the Oder estuary are presented. Furthermore, details on the role and protection of special sections, particularly river mouths and connections among different water bodies, are given.  Sustainability of fishery is determined by its own methods and techniques. Factors like adaptation of quotas to population sizes (overfishing), proportion of by-catches and discards play an important role in this sustainability. But fishery is also directly or indirectly influenced by other waterside and landside utilisation. So adjustments and coordination of activities have to stay within the integrated coastal management. In the Oder estuary impacts of nutrients and pollutants from the summation of landside or watershed influx are relevant, especially from the Oder river itself and other direct influx. Examination of the historical development of trophic levels in the estuary shows that the confined primary phytal zone was pushed back to the shoreline by eutrophication. By means of advanced analysis it has to be examined if differences in density of macrophytes took effect on the fish fauna and spawning conditions. As a result, changes in quotas for fishery and in species composition have to be considered.

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