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Boesch, D. F.: Science and management in four U.S. coastal ecosystems dominated by land-ocean interactions. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 2: 103-114, 1996.


Abstract. The influence of science in the recognition of the effects of landscape changes on coastal ecosystems and in the development of effective policy for managing and restoring these ecosystems is examined through four case studies: Chesapeake Bay, San Francisco Bay, the Mississippi Delta, and Florida Bay. These ecosystems have undergone major alterations as a result of changes in the delivery of water, sediments and nutrients from their watersheds. Both science  and management have been challenged by the spatial, functional and temporal scale mismatches inherent in the watershed- coastal ecosystem relationship. Key factors affecting the influence of science on management include (1) sustained scientific investigation, responsive to but not totally defined by managers; (2) clear evidence of change, the scale of the change and the causes of the change; (3) consensus among the scientific communities associated with various interests; (4) the development of models to guide management actions; (5) identification of effective and feasible solutions to the problems.

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