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van Boxel, J.H., Jungerius, P.D., Kieffer, N., Hampele, N.: Ecological effects of reactivation of artificially stabilized blowouts in coastal dunes. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 3: 57-62, 1997.


Abstract. In an inner dune area in the Dutch coastal dunes several artificially stabilized blowouts were reactivated. The purpose was to investigate whether these reactivated blowouts could remain active despite the increased atmospheric deposition of nutrients, how much area would be affected by sand from the blowouts, whether the vegetation would respond to the deposition of sand, and whether the reactivation of blowouts could be a measure against the effects of acidification and eutrophication. This paper presents the results of the first years of monitoring the changes in the blowout morphology and the response of the vegetation. In the monitoring period (1991-1994) the blowouts remained active and grew slowly in size and depth. The area which receives more than 1 cm of calcareous sand from the blowout in three years was up to six times the area of the blowouts. Moss vegetation responded to the accumulationof sand: Campylopus introflexus was sparse within the deposition area whereas Tortula ruralis was found near the contour of 1 cm deposition in 3 yr. No indications were found that shrubs or marram grass were adversely affected by the deposition of sand. The experiment forms part of a programme to test measures aimed at mitigating the effects of air pollution on natural landscapes. From the viewpoint of the programme the experiment is a success.

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