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Davos, C. A.: Sustainable cooperation as the challenge for a new coastal management paradigm. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 5: 171-180, 1999.


Abstract. Coastal management is a collective action. As such, it depends for its effective implementation on the cooperation of a multitude of stakeholders, i.e. civic organizations, economic interest groups, environmental groups, governmental agencies, scientists and other individuals. Where ‘effective implementation’ implies the achievement of targeted objectives within targeted time horizons and ‘cooperation’ connotes that stakeholders elect to pursue cooperative strategies that may yield higher gains for all stakeholders instead of competitive strategies that may maximize individual benefits. Thus, the fundamental challenge of Coastal Zone Management (CZM) is to maximize the effectiveness of this management by maximizing and sustaining stakeholder cooperation. I submit that sustainable cooperation can be maximized and nurtured for its voluntariness only by a process-oriented, cooperative CZM. The alternative, outcome-oriented, normative CZM can force, directly or indirectly, cooperation but it cannot sustain it. My purpose in this paper, is to highlight arguments supporting this view as well as the analytical challenges of cooperative ICZM. Certain points are also viewed in the light of preliminary findings of a research project designed to probe these challenges.

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