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Earll, R.C., Williams, A.T., Simmons, S.L., Tudor, D.T.: Aquatic litter, management and prevention â the role of measurement. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 6: 67-78, 2000.


Abstract. Methodology of litter management has many forms and increasingly measurement is linked to management. By providing measured profiles of the quality of litter types, trends in the input of new items can be assessed and prevention programmes directed more effectively to sources. Developing methodologies and their application to management cover three main areas. 1. Rapid appraisal where a framework of litter categories and pollution grades is used to map litter distribution on a broad geographic scale. 2. The benefits of using the ‘species-area’ approach with transects to enable quantitative data to be collected in a cost efficient manner. 3. Linking litter to an input source, requires that the qualities of individual litter items be assessed. The species area approach is useful in this context since by the time that 300 - 400 litter items have been described the main composition of a sample can be characterized and input sources attributed.

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