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Edler, J., Hirschfeld, J.. Rechtliche und ökonomische Handlungsoptionen sowie Steuerungsinstrumente am Beispiel der Reduktion von Umweltbeeinträchtigungen . In: Kannen, A., Schernewski, G., Krämer, I., Lange, M., JanÃen, H., Stybel, N. (eds.). Forschung für ein Integriertes Küstenzonenmanagement: Fallbeispiele Odermündungsregion und Offshore-Windkraft in der Nordsee. Coastline Reports (15), pp. 197-214. EUCC - Die Küsten Union Deutschland e.V., Rostock, 2010.

Zusammenfassung:

Options for action and management or controlling tools

The objective of this article is to examine the legal settings and economic perspective concerning options for action and controlling tools in Germany. The article deals on the one hand with general information on options for action and controlling tools and on the other hand with details concerning controlling tools, especially those which work indirectly. Firstly, it has to be made clear what is to renew or which goals are to reach. A goal can be defined in terms of quality or quantity. But sometimes the goal is not a special fact or a number. Then, it has to be concretized what has to be changed. The weaker, boundlessness and unclear, the target fails, the more difficult to implement. Next step is to examine which competencies have to be obtained and which instruments there are in general. Different disciplines like law, environmental sciences, economics and techniques have to work together for best results. For example you have to clarify legally whether the desired objective can be set in the legally permissible limits and what are the international, european communities or national specifications. From socio-economic point of view it is fundamentally a question of costs and benefits of measures to improve water quality in the Oder, the Odra Basin and the Baltic Sea together with the Odra Basin (Oderhaff) balanced. The normative decision about which strains the budget is reasonable and what the benefit-cost ratio reasonable, it can only be made through a political process. Control deficits are divided into their causes, namely lack of controllability, knowledge, implementation and / or motivation. Basically, different instruments of environmental law are distinguished: environmental planning, direct and indirect behavior control. These are different in impact and intensity. While prevalent in direct instruments of administrative coercion, will be replaced in case of indirect instruments of coercion freedom, flexibility, market and private autonomy. Examples of indirect controling and working legal instruments are taxes, allowances, subsidies or selfbinding contracts. Even if there are management tools, is the different interpretations of concepts or even the different application, an additional problem. All instruments have their own capacities, advantages and disadvantages. A combination of less direct working, more selfregulating instruments and a few strict working tools is better than the older system, because people have choice and more efficient outcomes can be reached. Acceptance and compliance of rules is rising Which combination of tax instruments and concrete measures embodiments promises the best outcome is only after completion of a complex balancing process between the multi-dimensional effects (ecologically, economically, socially - and even within these categories can in turn be addressed different dimensions) are chosen measures and their costs. Indirect control mechanisms are in a position to guide the behavior, particularly in a case related to the combination. But they make sense only when essential conditions are met. In history, there was first a law described like “command and control”. Now, there is a new century of modern instruments and new concepts of selfregulating and selfbinding tools ending in a new form of law and order - so called governance-conception.

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