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Hesp, P. A.: The Environmental Impact Assessment process in Singapore with particular respect to coastal environments and the role of NGOs. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 1: 135-144, 1995.


Abstract. The recent history of industrial and urban development in Singapore, the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process, and the way EIAs are used in development planning is briefly reviewed. EIAs are carried out in secret when, and if the Government deems them necessary. Coastal ecosystems are used as examples to show that an almost total loss of mangrove, sandy beach and coral reef systems has taken place at the expense of development, and in a political environment where the EIA is supposedly utilized. The role of the main Non-Government Organisation (NGO) of Singapore, the Nature Society of Singapore, in affecting conservation is also discussed.

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